Stater of Nectanebo II
© Fondation Gandur pour l’Art, Genève
Photographer : André Longchamp
© Fondation Gandur pour l’Art, Genève
Photographer : André Longchamp
Initial skepticism
Scholars suggest that the Lydians, whose kingdom was located in the Western litoral of the Anatolian peninsula of what is now the modern nation state of the Republic of Turkey, minted the first coins during the course of the 7th century BC. Thereafter most states in the Mediterranean basin began to mint their own coins so that a monetized economy shortly dominated most national and international financial transactions. Many of those early coins were minted in both gold and silver, but the ancient Egyptians were reluctant to adopt this new practice. They steadfastly adhered to their millennium-old custom of barter—exchanging commodities of equivalent value for other commodities. Their reluctance to adopt coinage has been attributed to their suggested religious aversion for the use of gold, considered to be the flesh of their divinities, and silver, considered to be the bones of their deities, for mundane, mercantile purposes. When the very first coin of the type to which FGA-ARCH-EG-0363 belongs was identified in 1901, scholars, aware of the reluctance of the ancient Egyptian to mint coins, were initially reluctant to accept its authenticity and considered it to be a forgery. [Read more]
Stater of Nectanebo II
Dynasty XXX, reign of Nectanebo II, 360-342 BC
1.7 x 1.7 x 0.3 cm
Collection Félix-Bienaimé Feuardent (1819-1907)  
Fraysse & Associés, Paris, 26 novembre 2009, lot nº 16
Previous publications
cf, BOLSHAKOV, Andrey O., “The earliest known gold pharaonic coin,” Revue d’Égyptologie, Société Française d'Égyptologie avec le concours du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et du Centre National du Livre, Leuven, 43 (1992), p. 2-9
FAUCHER, Thomas, FISCHER-BOSSERT, Wolfgang, DHENNIN, Sylvain, “Les monniaies en or aux types hiéroglyphiques nwb nfr,” Bulletin de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale, Institut français d’archéologie orientale, Le Caire, 112 (2012), p. 149, no. m
BIANCHI, ROBERT STEVEN, in MELA, Charles; MÖRI, Frédéric (éds), Alexandrie la divine, Catalogue d'exposition, Cologny, Fondation Martin Bodmer, 5 avril - 31 août 2014, 2014,  vol. 1, p. 116-117 et vol. 2, p. 1027,  fig. 18,  ill. n/b
BIANCHI Robert Steven, ZIEGLER Christiane, Les bronzes égyptiens. Fondation Gandur pour l'Art, Berne, Till Schaap Edition, 2014, p. 148-151, n° 39
BIANCHI Robert Steven, ZIEGLER Christiane, Egyptian Bronzes. Fondation Gandur pour l'Art, Berne, Till Schaap Edition, 2014, p. 148-151, n° 39
LOEBEN Christian E., « Von Hü und Hott, von Ägyptologie und Münzen, von Goldstücken und dem "Weißen Rößl" sowie ein weiteres Mal, auch "Pferde-mäßig" zur Nebu-nefer-Münze », in LEHMANN, R., HAMBORG, B., SIEBERT, A.V., VOGT, S. AND LOEBEN, C.E. [eds.], Nub nefer - Gutes Gold. Gedenkschrift für Manfred Gutgesell, Hannoversche Numismatische Beiträge 1, Rahden et Westfalen, Verlag Marie Leidorf, 2014, p. 67-84, fig. 7-8
cf, WOJCIECHOWSKA, Agnieszka, From Amyrtaeus to Ptolemy: Egypt in the fourth century B.C., Philippika 97, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, 2016, p. 29, 51, passim.